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陕西省兴平市玉米田草地贪夜蛾的发生动态及关键防治技术
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引用本文:董金慧,宋梁栋,李方向,王忠娣,牛晓萍,南江磊,成卫宁.陕西省兴平市玉米田草地贪夜蛾的发生动态及关键防治技术.植物保护学报,2024,51(3):619-628
DOI:10.13802/j.cnki.zwbhxb.2024.2023072
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作者单位E-mail
董金慧 西北农林科技大学植物保护学院, 植保资源与病虫害治理教育部重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100  
宋梁栋 兴平市植保植检站, 陕西 兴平 713100  
李方向 西安市农业技术推广中心, 西安 710061  
王忠娣 兴平市植保植检站, 陕西 兴平 713100  
牛晓萍 兴平市植保植检站, 陕西 兴平 713100  
南江磊 西北农林科技大学植物保护学院, 植保资源与病虫害治理教育部重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100  
成卫宁 西北农林科技大学植物保护学院, 植保资源与病虫害治理教育部重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100 cwning@126.com 
中文摘要:为明确草地贪夜蛾Spodoptera frugiperda在陕西省关中地区的种群消长动态,筛选适合当地的抗虫玉米品种和高效防治药剂,于2020—2022年连续3年在兴平市玉米田采用性诱捕器监测其发生动态,采用植株受害5级法评估其对8个当地主栽玉米品种的为害及产卵选择,同时测定7种不同类型杀虫剂对当地种群卵和3龄幼虫的毒力及田间防效。结果表明,2020年和2021年草地贪夜蛾在兴平市的成虫始见期为6月中旬,2022年为7月下旬,连续3年的终见期均为11月上旬,高峰期均为8月下旬至9月下旬;其中在2021年的发生量最大,为212头/诱捕器。成虫产卵对玉米品种和叶片部位具有选择性,其中在郑单958上所产卵块数显著低于华农887,在叶片背面所产卵块数显著高于叶片正面。供试玉米品种中秦龙14和郑单958受害较轻,播后25~35 d平均受害级别均低于2.0;正大12和纪元1号受害最重,平均受害级别介于2.5~3.4之间。供试药剂中,5.7%甲维盐对草地贪夜蛾卵的毒力最高,LC50为5.03 mg/L,其次为60 g/L乙基多杀菌素和10%虫螨腈,二者LC50介于25.81~32.27 mg/L之间;5.7%甲维盐、60 g/L乙基多杀菌素和50 g/L虱螨脲对幼虫的毒力较强,三者LC50介于0.14~0.63 mg/L之间。施用5.7%甲维盐、60 g/L乙基多杀菌素和50 g/L虱螨脲后3~10 d对草地贪夜蛾的田间防效最好,为92.34%~99.12%;其次为200 g/L氯虫苯甲酰胺和150 g/L茚虫威,药后3~10 d的田间防效为85.67%~92.09%。表明陕西省主栽玉米品种秦龙14和郑单958对草地贪夜蛾有一定抗性,5.7%甲维盐和60 g/L乙基多杀菌素对当地种群卵和幼虫的毒力最高且田间防效最好。
中文关键词:草地贪夜蛾  种群动态  玉米品种  抗性  杀虫剂  毒力  田间防效
 
Occurrence dynamics and key control techniques of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda in maize field of Xingping City, Shaanxi Province, China
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
Dong Jinhui Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management of Ministry of Education, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, China  
Song Liangdong Xingping Plant Protection and Inspection Station, Xingping 713100, Shaanxi Province, China  
Li Fangxiang Xi'an Agricultural Technology Extension Centre, Xi'an 710061, Shaanxi Province, China  
Wang Zhongdi Xingping Plant Protection and Inspection Station, Xingping 713100, Shaanxi Province, China  
Niu Xiaoping Xingping Plant Protection and Inspection Station, Xingping 713100, Shaanxi Province, China  
Nan Jianglei Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management of Ministry of Education, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, China  
Cheng Weining Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management of Ministry of Education, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, China cwning@126.com 
Abstract:To clarify the population dynamics of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda in maize fields in the Guanzhong area of Shaanxi Province and to screen suitable insect-resistant maize varieties and effective control insecticides, the population dynamics of S. frugiperda was monitored by using sex pheromone traps in the maize field in Xingping City during 2020—2022. In addition, the damage caused by S.frugiperda to eight maize varieties cultivated in Shaanxi Province were investigated based on the fivescale assessment of plant damage and the number of egg masses. Meanwhile, the toxicity of seven pesticides to eggs and 3rd-instar larvae of S. frugiperda and their field control efficacy were investigated. The results showed that adult S. frugiperda began to emerge in Xingping City in mid-June in 2020 and 2021, and in late July in 2022, peaked from late August to late September, and disappearing in early November during 2020—2022. The number of moths trapped was highest in 2021, with 212 individuals per trap, compared to 2020 and 2022. Oviposition of S. frugiperda exhibited selectivity among maize varieties and leaf positions, with significantly fewer egg masses laid on Zhengdan 958 than on Huanong 887, and on upper side of leaves than on the underside. Among the maize varieties tested, Qinlong14 and Zhengdan 958 showed less damage, with mean damage ratings lower than 2.0 at 25-35 d after planting, while Zhengda 12 and Jiyuan 1 suffered the heaviest damage, with ratings between 2.5 and 3.4. Of the insecticides tested, 5.7% emamectin benzoate exhibited the strongest toxicity against S. frugiperda eggs, with an LC 50 of 5.03 mg/L, followed by 60 g/L spinetoram and 10% chlorfenapyr, with LC50 values ranging from 25.81 to 32.27 mg/L. Furthermore, 5.7% emamectin benzoate, 60 g/L spinetoram, and 50 g/L lufenuron exhibited stronger toxicity against larvae, with LC50 values ranging from 0.14 to 0.63 mg/L. The field control efficacy of 5.7% emamectin benzoate, 60 g/L spinetoram, and 50 g/L lufenuron at days 3-10 after application was optimal, ranging from 92.34% to 99.12%, followed by 200 g/L chlorantraniliprole and 150 g/L indoxacarb, with control efficacy ranging from 85.67% to 92.09%. These results suggest that maize varieties Qinlong 14 and Zhengdan 958 planted in Shaanxi Province exhibit some resistance to S. frugiperda, and 5.7% emamectin benzoate and 60 g/L spinetoram demonstrate the highest toxicity to eggs and larvae of the local population, as well as the best control effect in the field.
keywords:Spodoptera frugiperda  population dynamics  maize variety  resistance  insecticide  toxicity  field control efficacy
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