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我国农药管理现状及面临的挑战
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引用本文:张宏军,陶岭梅,刘学,周序国,黄修柱.我国农药管理现状及面临的挑战.植物保护学报,2022,49(1):398-406
DOI:10.13802/j.cnki.zwbhxb.2022.2022830
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作者单位E-mail
张宏军 农业农村部农药检定所, 北京 100125  
陶岭梅 农业农村部农药检定所, 北京 100125  
刘学 农业农村部农药检定所, 北京 100125  
周序国 Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40546, Kentucky, USA  
黄修柱 农业农村部农药检定所, 北京 100125 huangxiuzhu@agri.gov.cn 
中文摘要:我国有占世界19%的人口,但仅有占世界9%的耕地,因此保证国家粮食安全是头等大事。在确保生态环境安全的前提下,如何增加作物产量和保障农产品质量安全始终是我国农业快速发展面临的一大挑战。在高效、负责、透明的政府能力建设中,我国农业的绿色发展和高质量发展战略,我国农药管理的法制建设、市场监管、食品安全、环境监测、有害生物治理、应用技术服务及推广等都取得了显著进步。到2021年底,我国已经登记了740多个农药有效成分,41 433个农药产品。2021年,全国1 705家农药定点企业,共生产了化学农药原药249.8万t。不仅满足了国内有害生物防控的实际需要,还出口180多个国家和地区,农药出口额达到234亿美金。我国还有的10个高毒农药品种,已经控制在1.3%以下,且安排在未来5年内会陆续退市。本文还分析梳理了今后我国农药管理发展所面临的挑战。
中文关键词:农药管理  农药登记  农药风险评估
 
Current status and challenges of pesticide management in China
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
Zhang Hongjun Institute for the Control of Agrochemicals, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100125, China  
Tao Lingmei Institute for the Control of Agrochemicals, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100125, China  
Liu Xue Institute for the Control of Agrochemicals, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100125, China  
Zhou Xuguo Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40546, Kentucky, USA  
Huang Xiuzhu Institute for the Control of Agrochemicals, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100125, China huangxiuzhu@agri.gov.cn 
Abstract:China feeds 19% of the world's population with only 9% of its arable land and 6% fresh water. Food safety and food security are the top priorities for the Chinese government. How to increase crop production while maintain food quality and safety without harming the environment remains one of the biggest challenges for China. Driven by the "Capacity building on effective, accountable, and transparent government", "Green Development" strategy and "High-quality Development" strategy, pesticide management has made significant improvements in terms of legislation, market inspection, food safety, environmental monitoring, integrated pest management, technical support, and extension in China. In 2021, there were over 740 active ingredients of pesticides, over 41 433 products, and 2.498 million ton in technical grade pesticides, which were registered and manufactured by 1 705 companies.These pesticides were not only used domestically in China, but also exported to over 180 countries or regions to fight against pest problems, with a total export value of 23.4 billion U.S. dollars in 2021. The percentage of highly toxic pesticides in the overall production has dropped to~1.3%, and the ten highly toxic pesticides will be phased out within the next five years. In this review, we summarized the major challenges and opportunities in the pesticide management in China.
keywords:pesticide management  pesticide registration  pesticide risk assessment
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