• 首页 | 期刊简介  | 
    编委会
    编委会
    青年编委会
     | 道德声明 | 投稿指南 | 联系我们 | 期刊订阅 | English
高效植保机械与精准施药技术进展
点此下载全文
引用本文:何雄奎.高效植保机械与精准施药技术进展.植物保护学报,2022,49(1):389-397
DOI:10.13802/j.cnki.zwbhxb.2022.2022827
摘要点击次数:
全文下载次数:
作者单位E-mail
何雄奎 中国农业大学理学院应用化学系, 中国农业大学植保机械与施药技术研究中心, 北京 100193 xiongkui@cau.edu.cn 
中文摘要:农药、植保机械(又称药械)与施药技术是影响农药喷施效果、防治效果和农药利用效率的3个同等重要的因素。药械与施药技术随着农药学科的发展而发展,整体来讲药械发展经历了人背机器、机器背人、人机分离、喷雾机器人4个典型时代。我国现有耕种面积大小不同的各类农场3.2亿个,总耕地面积1.2亿hm2,年均植保防治作业面积4亿~5亿hm2次,至今我国连续10多年的粮食连年增产,新型植保装备与高效施药技术的研发应用推广功不可没。与20世纪相比,在新千年前20年,国内外药械和施药技术与高速发展的绿色农药生产相互适应、相互促进,进入了快速发展的轨道,至2020年我国植保机械社会保有量突破2.5亿台,自走式喷杆喷雾机260多万台,各类果园喷雾机150多万台,植保无人机10多万台;新型植保装备与高效施药技术为农药减量提供了手段,助推了农药利用率的提高和农药的减量计划的实施。2020年全国水稻、玉米、小麦三大粮食作物的农药利用率达到40.6%,较2015年提高了4个百分点,新型植保装备与高效施药技术为解决诸如农药有效利用率低、操作人员中毒、农药残留超标和环境污染等问题做出了突出贡献。特别是在我国自走式喷杆喷雾机、植保无人机、无人驾驶精准变量喷雾装备与高效低量施药技术研发应用方面,为我国现代化农业的健康、高效植保作业的快速发展提供解决方案。
中文关键词:精准农业  农药  植保机械  雾滴  施药技术
 
Research and development of efficient plant protection equipment and precision spraying technology in China: a review
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
He Xiongkui Centre for Chemicals Application Technology, Department of ChemicalApplication, College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China xiongkui@cau.edu.cn 
Abstract:Pesticide, equipment(also known as plant protection machinery) and application technology are three equally important aspects of pesticide spraying effect, control effect and pesticide utilization efficiency. With the development of pesticide science, the development of plant protection machinery and pesticide application technology have experienced four typical periods:people carrying machines, machines carrying people, man-machine separation and unmanned at all. There are 320 million farms of different sizes in China, with a total cultivated area of 1.2 billion hm2 and an average annual area of four to five billion hm2 for plant protection and prevention. Up to now, the grain yield has increased continuously for more than ten years, and the research, development and application of new plant protection equipment and efficient pesticide application technology are indispensable. In the past 20 years, domestic and international plant protection equipment and efficient pesticide application technology have been adapted and promoted with the rapid development of green pesticide production, thereby proceed on a path of rapid and sustained growth. By 2020, there were more than 250 million plant protection devices, 2.6 million self-propelled boom sprayers, and 100 000 plant protection unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs) in China. Besides, compared with 2015, the utilizing rate of pesticides increased by 4% to 40.6% in 2020, making outstanding contributions to solving problems such as low utilizing rate of pesticides, poisoning of operators, excessive pesticide residues and environmental pollution. In particular, the research, development and application of self-propelled boom sprayers, plant protection UAVs, unmanned precision variable spraying devices and efficient application technology provide a solution for the rapid and healthy development of modern agriculture and efficient plant protection operation in China.
keywords:precision farming  pesticide  crop protection machinery  droplet  application technology
查看全文  查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
您是本站第  8822176 版权所有:植物保护学报    京ICP备05006550号-2  
主管单位:中国科协 主办单位:中国植物保护学会、中国农业大学 地址:北京市圆明园西路2号 中国农业大学植物保护学院 植物保护学报编辑部
电话:010-62732528 电子邮件:zbxb@cau.edu.cn
技术支持:北京勤云科技发展有限公司