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我国土壤熏蒸消毒60年回顾
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引用本文:曹坳程,方文生,李园,颜冬冬,王秋霞,郭美霞,黄斌,宋兆欣,靳茜.我国土壤熏蒸消毒60年回顾.植物保护学报,2022,49(1):325-335
DOI:10.13802/j.cnki.zwbhxb.2022.2022822
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作者单位E-mail
曹坳程 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所, 北京 100193
河北省土传病害绿色防控技术创新中心, 保定 071000
现代农业产业技术体系北京市创新团队, 北京 100029 
caoac@vip.sina.com, caoaocheng@caas.cn 
方文生 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所, 北京 100193  
李园 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所, 北京 100193  
颜冬冬 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所, 北京 100193  
王秋霞 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所, 北京 100193  
郭美霞 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所, 北京 100193  
黄斌 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所, 北京 100193  
宋兆欣 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所, 北京 100193  
靳茜 河北省土传病害绿色防控技术创新中心, 保定 071000  
中文摘要:熏蒸剂棉隆和氯化苦于20世纪60年代在我国曾用于棉花黄萎病的防治,由于缺乏施药机械、相关施药标准和方法,加之与国外交流甚少,虽然发现熏蒸剂对土传病害有一定的效果,但一直未形成规模化应用。我国大量使用熏蒸剂进行土壤消毒处理始于20世纪90年代,随着溴甲烷的引进与广泛应用,溴甲烷的替代技术及产品研发,开启了我国土壤熏蒸消毒的新纪元。伴随着土壤消毒技术与理论的不断丰富,新型配套机械装备的成功研发,社会化服务模式的广泛运用,土壤熏蒸消毒在我国进入快速发展时期,大批专业化服务组织应运而生,为我国农作物病虫害的绿色防控、实施乡村振兴战略提供了强有力的技术支撑。该文从土壤熏蒸剂的种类、发展历史、基础理论的建立与阐明3方面综述了我国土壤熏蒸发展情况,并对我国土壤熏蒸消毒未来发展方向提出了展望。
中文关键词:土壤熏蒸消毒  溴甲烷替代技术  土壤熏蒸发展历史  新型土壤熏蒸剂
 
Review on 60 years of soil fumigation and disinfestation in China
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
Cao Aocheng Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
Hebei Technology Innovation Center for Green Management of Soil-borne Diseases, Baoding 071000, Hebei Province, China
Modern Agricultural Industrial Technology System Beijing Fruit Vegetable Innovation Team, Beijing 100029, China 
caoac@vip.sina.com, caoaocheng@caas.cn 
Fang Wensheng Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China  
Li Yuan Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China  
Yan Dongdong Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China  
Wang Qiuxia Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China  
Guo Meixia Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China  
Huang Bin Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China  
Song Zhaoxin Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China  
Jin Qian Hebei Technology Innovation Center for Green Management of Soil-borne Diseases, Baoding 071000, Hebei Province, China  
Abstract:Dazomet and chloropicrin were used in the control of cotton Verticillium wilt in China in the1960s. Although the fumigants have a certain control effect on soil-borne diseases, they had not formed a large-scale application due to the lack of application machinery, relevant standards, application methods and communication with developed countries during this period. The extensive use of fumigants for soil disinfestation in China began in the 1990s. With the import and wide application of methyl bromide, soil fumigation ushered in a new development in China. With the enrichment of soil fumigation technologies and theories, the successful development of machinery, and the wide application of social service models, soil fumigation has entered a rapid development in China. A large number of professional service organizations had been established, providing strong technical support for the green control of crop diseases and pests in China and the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy. This paper reviewed the development of soil fumigation in China from three aspects:the types of soil fumigation agents, the development history, the establishment and clarification of basic theories, and put forward the new prospects for the future development of soil fumigation in China.
keywords:soil fumigation  methyl bromide alternatives  development history of soil disinfestation  novel soil fumigants
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