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植物真菌和卵菌病暴发的起源和传播
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引用本文:徐建平.植物真菌和卵菌病暴发的起源和传播.植物保护学报,2022,49(1):283-297
DOI:10.13802/j.cnki.zwbhxb.2022.2022810
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徐建平 Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4K1, Ontario, Canada jpxu@mcmaster.ca 
中文摘要:传染病暴发在植物、动物和人群中很常见。除了少数已发展为流行病和大流行病外,在很大程度上大多数传染病暴发的原因仍未知,植物真菌和卵菌病暴发尤其如此。所有流行病和大流行病都是从局部暴发开始,然后蔓延到更广泛的地理区域,因此了解其初始暴发的原因对于有效预防和控制植物病害流行病和大流行病至关重要。该文首先描述疾病暴发的定义和检测,随后简要描述导致植物传染病暴发的主要原因,包括寄主植物、病原体及其相关的环境因素,以一种真菌和一种卵菌病原体为例简要概述宿主病原体系统,并强调分子工具在帮助揭示病原体的起源和传播及其暴发及大流行方面的作用。由于人为活动及气候的加速变化,植物病害暴发的可能性越来越大,最后提出应该如何应对其暴发。
中文关键词:传染病  寄主植物多样性  病原体多样性  环境因素  分子标记  流行病学  人为影响
 
Origins and spread of plant fungal and oomycete disease outbreaks
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
Xu Jianping Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4K1, Ontario, Canada jpxu@mcmaster.ca 
Abstract:Infectious disease outbreaks are common in plant, animal, and human populations. However, aside from a few outbreaks that have developed into epidemics and pandemics, the factors that contribute to most outbreaks remain largely unknown. This is especially the case for plant fungal and oomycete disease outbreaks. Because all epidemics and pandemics start as localized outbreaks which subsequently spread to broader geographic regions, to effectively prevent and control plant disease epidemics and pandemics, it's critical to understand the factors that contribute to the initial outbreaks. In this review, the definition and detection of disease outbreaks are introduced and described. This was followed by brief descriptions of the main factors contributing to plant infectious diseases outbreaks, including host plants, pathogens, and their associated environmental factors. One fungal and one oomycete pathogen are then used as examples to provide brief overview of two agricultural host-pathogen systems and to highlight how molecular tools have helped revealing the origins and spread of pathogens causing outbreaks that have resulted in pandemics. With accelerating changes from anthropogenic activities, including climate change, plant disease outbreaks will likely increase. The paper finishes by discussing how we should prepare ourselves to better prevent and manage future outbreaks.
keywords:infectious disease  host plant diversity  pathogen diversity  environmental factor  molecular marker  epidemiology  anthropogenic effect
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