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中国蝗虫学研究60年
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引用本文:康乐,魏丽亚.中国蝗虫学研究60年.植物保护学报,2022,49(1):4-16
DOI:10.13802/j.cnki.zwbhxb.2022.2022831
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作者单位E-mail
康乐 河北大学生命科学学院, 保定 071002
中国科学院动物研究所, 北京 100101 
lkang@ioz.ac.cn 
魏丽亚 河北大学生命科学学院, 保定 071002  
中文摘要:蝗虫灾害是人类历史上三大自然灾害之一,对农牧业、环境和经济构成严重威胁。我国是世界上遭受蝗灾最严重的国家之一,有关蝗虫学的研究有较长的历史。60年前,通过改治结合,我国控制了大规模的飞蝗Locusta migratoria蝗灾发生,取得了举世瞩目的成就。60年过去了,中国蝗虫学研究发生了翻天覆地的变化。该文主要综述了最近60年中国蝗虫学研究的发现与创新,展示蝗虫分类学、生态学、生殖与发育生物学、分子生物学、基因组学研究以及蝗虫控制技术研究等多个方面的成就。这些研究成果是世界昆虫学研究的重要组成部分。特别是近30年,我国科学家深入揭示蝗虫两型转变的遗传和表观遗传机制,在国际上产生了重要影响。飞蝗的综合生物学研究积累使飞蝗成为继果蝇之后又一个昆虫模式系统。更重要的是,我国科学家开发的真菌生物农药和群聚信息素可以作为重要的防治手段用于蝗灾的治理。
中文关键词:蝗灾  型变  信息素  生态适应  调控机制
 
Progress of acridology in China over the last 60 years
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
Kang Le College of Life Sciences, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, Hebei Province, China
Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China 
lkang@ioz.ac.cn 
Wei Liya College of Life Sciences, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, Hebei Province, China  
Abstract:Locust plague is one of the three natural disasters in human history, seriously threatening to safety of agriculture, animal husbandry, environment, and social economy. China is the country where the high frequencies of locust plagues occur in the world. On the other hands, China has long-historical researches on locusts and grasshoppers from ancient to modern times. Sixty years ago, Chinese people successfully suppressed the large-scale outbreaks of locust plagues in China through the reform of locust breeding areas and integrated management, making remarkable achievements. Sixty years on, the researches of acridology in China have changed dramatically. This paper mainly summarizes the research achievements and progresses of acridology in China over the last 60 years, including taxonomy, ecology, phase biology, developmental and reproductive biology, molecular biology, genomics, methodology, and control technology. These studies become important parts and highlights of world-wide entomology. In particular, researches on the genetic and epigenetic mechanism underlying the regulation of locust phase change from Chinese scientists over the past 30 years have been considered the cuttingedge studies in entomology and phenotypic plasticity. The migratory locusts due to the accumulation of integrative biology from Chinese scientists have become another insect model system after fruit fly.More importantly, the developments of fungal-pesticides and discovery of aggregation pheromone by Chinese scientists as powerful methods are able to serve the locust and grasshopper management.
keywords:locusts plague  phase change  pheromone  ecological adaptation  regulation mechanism
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