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宁夏回族自治区中宁县枸杞红瘿蚊生物学特性及发生规律
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引用本文:刘赛,雷捷惟,陈君,徐常青,陆鹏飞,乔海莉.宁夏回族自治区中宁县枸杞红瘿蚊生物学特性及发生规律.植物保护学报,2020,47(2):446-454
DOI:10.13802/j.cnki.zwbhxb.2020.2019067
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作者单位E-mail
刘赛 中国医学科学院北京协和医学院, 药用植物研究所, 北京 100193  
雷捷惟 中国医学科学院北京协和医学院, 药用植物研究所, 北京 100193
北京林业大学林学院, 省部共建森林培育与森林保护教育部重点实验室, 北京 100083 
 
陈君 中国医学科学院北京协和医学院, 药用植物研究所, 北京 100193  
徐常青 中国医学科学院北京协和医学院, 药用植物研究所, 北京 100193  
陆鹏飞 北京林业大学林学院, 省部共建森林培育与森林保护教育部重点实验室, 北京 100083  
乔海莉 中国医学科学院北京协和医学院, 药用植物研究所, 北京 100193 qhl193314@163.com 
中文摘要:为绿色安全防控枸杞红瘿蚊Jaapiella sp.,于2016-2018年自宁夏回族自治区中宁县新堡镇宋营村枸杞种植基地枸杞上采集枸杞红瘿蚊,对其各虫态的形态特征、生活习性和成虫寿命等生物学特性进行室内观察,并对其年生活史及年发生规律进行田间调查。结果表明:枸杞红瘿蚊成虫羽化高度集中,羽化后的雌成虫不需要补充营养,便可立即求偶、交尾和产卵,孵化后幼虫取食子房,致使花蕾畸形膨大形成虫瘿,幼虫老熟后脱离虫瘿并弹跳入土结茧化蛹。成虫寿命极短,已交尾的雌、雄成虫平均寿命分别为41.8 h和38.3 h;未交尾的雌、雄成虫平均寿命分别为28.5 h和16.6 h。枸杞红瘿蚊每年发生6代,以老熟幼虫在地表土层中越冬,每年4月中旬至9月下旬为其为害期,其中第1代、第2代和第6代幼虫为害严重。枸杞红瘿蚊成虫发生高峰期有2个,分别为4-6月和9月。从4月枸杞红瘿蚊越冬代成虫陆续羽化开始,其成虫数量不断增长,4月和5月成虫数量分别为121头和167头,6月达到第1个高峰,为282头,随着枸杞秋枝萌发,9月枸杞红瘿蚊成虫数量又明显增多,达到第2个高峰,为117头。2017年4-10月从田间共收集788头成虫,雌成虫数量为420头,略高于雄成虫数量,雌雄比介于1.11~1.19之间。
中文关键词:枸杞红瘿蚊  枸杞  形态特征  生物学特性  生活史  发生规律
 
Biological characteristics and occurrence patterns of the gall midge Jaapiella sp. in Zhongning County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
LIU Sai Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China  
LEI Jiewei Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China
Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China 
 
CHEN Jun Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China  
XU Changqing Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China  
LU Pengfei Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China  
QIAO Haili Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China qhl193314@163.com 
Abstract:In order to safely control Jaapiella sp., the gall midges were collected from Chinese wolfberry planting base in Songying Village, Xinbao Town, Zhongning County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region from 2016 to 2018. Morphological characteristics of different developmental stages and the biological characteristics including life habits, adult longevity were observed in the laboratory and life history and annual occurrence pattern were investigated in the field. The results showed that the emergence of adults was concentrated and no supplementary nutrition was needed by females. Courtship, mating and laying eggs were occurred quickly after emergence. After hatching, the larvae fed on the ovary, resulting in the abnormal expansion of the flower bud to form galls. When the larvae matured, they left the galls and jumped into the soil to construct cocoons and pupate. The longevity of adults was very short, which was 41.8 h and 38.3 h for mated females and males respectively, and 28.5 h and 16.6 h for unmated females and males respectively. Jaapiella sp. had six generations per year. The mature larvae overwintered in the surface soil. The damage period was from middle April to late September. The first-, second- and sixth-generation larvae caused more serious damage in Zhongning County, Ningxia. There were two peak periods of occurrence of Jaapiella sp. adults from April to June and September, respectively. Since the emergence of the overwintering generation in April, the number of adults increased. The number of adults was 121 in April and 167 in May, and reached the first peak (282) in June. In September, when the autumn shoots of Chinese wolfberry sprouted, the number of Jaapiella sp. adults increased obviously, reaching the second peak (117). A total of 788 adults were collected from the field of Chinese wolfberry from April to October in 2017. The number of female adults was 420, slightly higher than that of male adults. The sex ratio of female and male ranged from 1.11 to 1.19.
keywords:Jaapiella sp.  Chinese wolfberry  morphological characteristic  biological characteristic  life history  occurrence pattern
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