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糜子丝黑穗病病原菌鉴定及其生物学特性
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引用本文:吴恩果,周瑜,朱明旗,刘佳佳,高小丽,冯佰利.糜子丝黑穗病病原菌鉴定及其生物学特性.植物保护学报,2020,47(1):101-109
DOI:10.13802/j.cnki.zwbhxb.2020.2019021
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作者单位E-mail
吴恩果 西北农林科技大学农学院, 旱区作物逆境生物学国家重点实验室, 杨凌 712100  
周瑜 西北农林科技大学农学院, 旱区作物逆境生物学国家重点实验室, 杨凌 712100
重庆市农业科学研究院, 重庆 400000 
 
朱明旗 西北农林科技大学植物保护学院, 杨凌 712100  
刘佳佳 西北农林科技大学农学院, 旱区作物逆境生物学国家重点实验室, 杨凌 712100  
高小丽 西北农林科技大学农学院, 旱区作物逆境生物学国家重点实验室, 杨凌 712100  
冯佰利 西北农林科技大学农学院, 旱区作物逆境生物学国家重点实验室, 杨凌 712100 fengbaili@nwsuaf.edu.cn 
中文摘要:为明确陕西省糜子丝黑穗病病原菌种类及其生物学特性,采用组织分离法和单孢分离法对其进行分离纯化,通过形态学特征和ITS序列分析对其进行鉴定,采用幼苗浸种法测定其致病性,并于室内对其生物学特性进行研究。结果表明,从发病糜子叶片和病瘿中共分离得到6株形态特征一致的菌株,代表菌株YL11-1菌落呈酵母状,白色,厚垣饱子呈球形或近球形,大小约7~10 μm;菌株YL11-1的ITS序列(GenBank登录号为KT721292.1)与稷光孢堆黑粉菌Sporisorium destruens的相似性为100%,接种菌株YL11-1后糜子出现4种典型病症,根据形态学特征、生物学特性和致病性分析结果将该病原菌鉴定为稷光孢堆黑粉菌。该菌株厚垣孢子萌发及菌丝最适生长温度范围均为25~30℃,最适产孢温度为30℃;厚垣孢子萌发和菌丝生长最适pH范围分别为3~7和5~7,最适产孢pH为7;厚垣孢子萌发最适碳源为0.5%葡萄糖和1.0%蔗糖,该菌株对葡萄糖的利用效果最好,对淀粉的利用效果最差;菌丝生长和产孢最适氮源分别为硝酸钾和硫酸铵,该菌株对硝酸铵的利用效果最差。
中文关键词:糜子  丝黑穗病  病原菌  稷光孢堆黑粉菌  鉴定  生物学特性
 
Identification and biological characteristics of Sporisorium destruens in broomcorn millet
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
WU Enguo State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, China  
ZHOU Yu State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, China
Chongqing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chongqing 400000, China 
 
ZHU Mingqi College of Plant Protection, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, China  
LIU Jiajia State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, China  
GAO Xiaoli State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, China  
FENG Baili State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, China fengbaili@nwsuaf.edu.cn 
Abstract:In order to clarify the pathogens and biological characteristics of broomcorn millet smut occurred in Shaanxi Province, China, the pathogens were isolated with the methods of tissues isolation and single spore separation, the identification of pathogens was done with morphological characteristics and ITS sequence analysis. The pathogenicity was tested by soaking seeds, and biological characteristics were determined with crossing and haemocytometer method in the laboratory. The results showed the pathogen of broomcorn millet smut was Sporisorium destruens and six strains with the same morphological characteristics were isolated from the leaves and gall of infected broomcorn millets. The colony morphology of the representative strain YL11-1 was white with the shape of yeast, the chlamydospores of the pathogen were spherical or nearly spherical, about 7-10 μm in size. The ITS sequence of strain YL11-1 (accession No. KT721292.1) had 100% homology with that of S. destruens, after inoculation with strain YL11-1, broomcorn millets showed four typical symptoms, and the pathogen was identified as S. destruens. The optimal temperature range for chlamydospore germination and mycelia growth were from 25℃ to 30℃, and the optimal pH range were from three to seven and five to seven, the optimal sporulation temperature was 30℃, pH was seven. For chlamydospore germination, 0.5% glucose or 1.0% sucrose were the optimal carbon source, glucose was the optimum carbon source and starch was the worst; the optimum nitrogen sources for mycelial growth was potassium nitrate, for sporulation was ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate was the worst.
keywords:broomcorn millet  head smut  pathogen  Sporisorium destruens  identification  biological characteristics
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