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添加助剂对植保无人飞机低容量喷雾在矮化密植苹果园中雾滴沉积分布及苹果黄蚜防治效果的影响
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引用本文:王明,陈奕璇,苏小计,岳虎锋,闫晓静,袁会珠.添加助剂对植保无人飞机低容量喷雾在矮化密植苹果园中雾滴沉积分布及苹果黄蚜防治效果的影响.植物保护学报,2019,46(6):1316-1323
DOI:10.13802/j.cnki.zwbhxb.2019.2018201
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作者单位E-mail
王明 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所, 农业农村部作物有害生物综合治理重点实验室, 北京 100193  
陈奕璇 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所, 农业农村部作物有害生物综合治理重点实验室, 北京 100193  
苏小计 陕西省植物保护总站, 西安 710000  
岳虎锋 旬邑县农村经营管理站, 陕西 旬邑 711300  
闫晓静 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所, 农业农村部作物有害生物综合治理重点实验室, 北京 100193  
袁会珠 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所, 农业农村部作物有害生物综合治理重点实验室, 北京 100193 hzhyuan@ippcaas.cn 
中文摘要:为明确助剂在农药减施增效中的作用,于室内利用自动界面张力仪、接触角仪、激光粒度仪、药液润湿性测试卡测定药液中添加助剂对溶液性质的影响,并结合田间试验探究药液中添加助剂对矮砧纺锤形栽培模式苹果园果树冠层喷雾雾滴沉积分布及苹果黄蚜Aphis spiraecola防治效果的影响。结果表明,植保无人飞机低容量喷雾常规用量毒死蜱乳油时,添加体积分数为0.5%的助剂后,溶液性质相比蒸馏水发生了显著变化,溶液的表面张力由71.2 mN/m下降到31.7 mN/m,下降了55.5%;喷雾20 s后在苹果叶片上的接触角减小到13.8°,比蒸馏水在苹果叶片上的接触角减少了74.3%;雾滴体积中径由蒸馏水的122.4 μm显著增加到142.2 μm;药液的铺展系数是蒸馏水的4.0倍。添加助剂后可以有效减少雾滴漂移,增加雾滴在苹果叶片上的铺展。田间使用植保无人飞机喷施40%毒死蜱乳油的沉积量均值为0.79 μg/cm2,7 d后对苹果黄蚜的防治效果为72.9%;农药减施20%后的沉积量均值为0.70 μg/cm2,7 d后对苹果黄蚜的防治效果为71.5%;而在这2个处理中添加0.5%助剂后农药沉积量均值分别增加至1.89 μg/cm2和1.14 μg/cm2,7 d后对苹果黄蚜的防治效果分别为83.8%和77.0%。表明添加助剂可显著增加农药在果树上的沉积量及对苹果黄蚜的防治效果;即使在农药减量20%应用中添加助剂后,药液在果树冠层的沉积量以及对苹果黄蚜的防治效果依然高于农药常规用量处理。
中文关键词:助剂  农药减施增效  植保无人飞机  雾滴沉积分布  苹果黄蚜  防治效果
 
Effects of adjuvants in low volume spraying by unmanned aerial vehicle on the deposition distribution of pesticide droplets and control efficiency against Aphis spiraecola in apple orchards of high-density dwarfing cultivation pattern
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
Wang Ming Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Crops, Ministry of Agriculture
Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China 
 
Chen Yixuan Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Crops, Ministry of Agriculture
Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China 
 
Su Xiaoji Plant Protection Station of Shaanxi Province, Xi'an 710000, Shaanxi Province, China  
Yue Hufeng Rural Management Station of Xunyi City, Xunyi 711300, Shaanxi Province, China  
Yan Xiaojing Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Crops, Ministry of Agriculture
Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China 
 
Yuan Huizhu Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Crops, Ministry of Agriculture
Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China 
hzhyuan@ippcaas.cn 
Abstract:To investigate the role of adjuvant in pesticide reduction and synergism, the surface tension meter, contact angle meter, laser particle analyzer and liquid wettability test card were used to evaluate their influences on the properties of solution by adding adjuvants in the laboratory. The effect of the droplets with adjuvant on the deposition and distribution in the canopy of apple trees in the low-anvil spindle-shaped cultivation model and its effect on the apple aphid Aphis spiraecola were explored. Compared with distilled water, the property of the chlorpyrifos emulsifiable concentrate (EC) solution prepared for low-volume spraying by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) changed significantly, and the surface tension of solution was converted from 71.2 mN/m to 31.7 mN/m, which was decreased by about 55.5%. The contact angle of the solution was also reduced by about 74.3% after spraying apple leaves for 20 s. In addition, the medium diameter of the droplet volume was significantly increased from 122.4 μm to 142.2 μm, and the spreading coefficient of solution was 4.0 times that of distilled water, which demonstrated that the solution for low-volume spraying by UAV with adjuvant could effectively reduce the drift and improve the spread property of fog droplets on apple leaves. In the field experiment, the average depositions of 40% chlorpyrifos EC and treatment with 20% reduced spraying by UAV were 0.79 μg/cm2 and 0.70 μg/cm2, respectively; their efficiencies against A. spiraecola were 72.9% and 71.5% after seven days, respectively. However, the average deposition and control effects increased to 1.89 μg/cm2, 83.8% and 1.14 μg/cm2, 77.0%, respectively, after 0.5% adjuvant was added in the above treatments. The results indicated that adding adjuvant could significantly increase the deposition of pesticides on apple trees and improve the efficiency against A. spiraecola. Moreover, when the pesticide dosage was reduced by 20% with 0.5% adjuvants added, the deposition and control efficiency were better than when common dosage was used without adjuvants.
keywords:adjuvant  pesticide reduction and synergism  plant-protection unmanned aerial vehicle  deposition distribution  Aphis spiraecola  control efficiency
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